Activated Protein C Resistance; APCR

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Description

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Activated protein C resistance (APCR) describes a hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). This results in an increased risk of venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant that is synthesized in the liver and is activated to APC via proteolysis. APC then degrades Factors Va and VIIIa. APCR describes the reduced inability of APC to cleave Factors Va and VIIIa, which therefore promotes increased thrombin generation and potentially leads to a prothrombotic state. APCR may be hereditary or acquired. The most common hereditary defect is due to mutations in Factor V, predominantly the Factor V Leiden [FVL] mutation-a G1691A missense mutation at Arginine 506 that results in its replacement by a glutamine [R506Q] and the abolition of an APC inactivation cleavage site in Factor Va. Laboratory testing for APCR may be undertaken by a variety of methods, but this chapter describes an automated procedure using a commercial Russell Viper Venom-based clotting assay, and using CS-5100 and STA-R analyzers.